1. Van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, et al. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2013 ; 368 : 407-15.

2. Debast SB, Bauer MP, Kuijper EJ. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases : update of the treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 2014 ; 20 (Suppl. 2) : 1-26.

3. Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ, Binion DG, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol 2013 ; 108 : 478-98 quiz 499.

4. Hensgens MP, Goorhuis A, Dekkers OM, et al. All-cause and disease-specific mortality in hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection: a multicenter cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2013 ; 56 : 1108-16.

5. Taori SK, Wroe A, Poxton IR. Clostridium difficile infections in South East Scotland : mortality and recurrence in a region without PCR ribotype 027. J Med Microbiol 2013 ; 62 (Pt 9) : 1468-77.

6. Kelly CR, Ihunnah C, Fischer M, et al. Fecal microbiota transplant for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in immunocompromised patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2014 ; 109 : 1065-71.

7. Hamilton MJ, Weingarden AR, Sadowsky MJ, Khoruts A. Standardized frozen preparation for transplantation of fecal microbiota for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2010 ; 107 : 761-7.

8. Hamilton MJ, Weingarden AR, Unno T, et al. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria. Gut microbes 2013 ; 4 : 125- 35.

9. Youngster I, Russell GH, Pindar C, et al. Oral, capsulized, frozen fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. JAMA 2014 ; 312 : 1772-8.

10. Youngster I, Sauk J, Pindar C, et al. Fecal microbiota transplant for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using a frozen inoculum from unrelated donors: a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study. Clin Infect Dis 2014 ; 58 : 1515- 22.

11. Megerlin F, Fouassier E, Lopert R, Bourlioux P. Faecal microbiota transplantation: a sui generis biological drug, not a tissue. Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises 2014 ; 72 : 217-20.

12. Schwartz M, Gluck M, Koon S. Norovirus gastroenteritis after fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection despite asymptomatic donors and lack of sick contacts. Am J Gastroenterol 2013 ; 108 : 1367.

13. Kump PK, Krause R, Allerberger F, Hogenauer C. Faecal microbiota transplantation-the Austrian approach. Clin Microbiol Infect 2014 ; 20 : 1106- 11.

14. Kump PK, Krause R, Steininger C, et al. Recommendations for the use of faecal microbiota transplantation ‘‘stool transplantation’’: consensus of the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (OGGH) in cooperation with the Austrian Society of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine. Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie 2014 ; 52 : 1485-92.